Contact and research

List of Publications     

1. Articles in Refereed Journals

Introduction to Special Issue: Openness, institutions, and long-run socio-economic development (guest-edited with Josef C. Brada and Richard Frensch). Economic Systems 40(2), 2016: 195–197.

A Monte Carlo study of the BE estimator for growth regressions (with Jan Ditzen). Empirical Economics 51(1), 2016: 31–55.
Stata code for simulations.

A note on human capital externalities, factor substitution, and technology differences (with Rasmus Thönnessen). Economics Bulletin 35(3), 2015: 1681–1686.

Look before you leap: why politicians may have a point to be hesitant about the gains from trade (with Albert de Vaal). Economic Systems 38(1), 2014: 89–99.
Online appendix.

Modeling external constraints on the hegemonic strategies of regional powers (with Sandra Destradi). Journal of Policy Modeling 36(S), 2014: S6–S25.

The size of human capital externalities (with Rasmus Thönnessen). Public Choice 157(3), 2013: 671–689.

Religiosity as a determinant of happiness (with Matthias Opfinger). Review of Development Economics 17(3), 2013: 523–539.

Introduction to Special Section: Reflections on multi-sector models of growth and development (with Bjarne S. Jensen and Alexander V. Prasolov). Review of Development Economics 17(2), 2013: 163–164.

The religious transition: a long-run perspective (with Martin Paldam). Public Choice 156(1-2), 2013: 105–123.
Online appendix, March 2012.

A model of the religious transition (with Martin Paldam). Theoretical Ecomics Letters 2(5), 2012: 419–422.

Technology differences in empirical studies of international trade (with Albert de Vaal). Economics Letters 117(1), 2012:18–20.

The democratic transition: short-run and long-run causality between income and the Gastil index (with Martin Paldam). European Journal of Development Research 24(1), 2012: 144–168.

The augmented Solow model with Mincerian schooling and externalities (with Kai Carstensen and Susanne Hartmann). German Economic Review 10(4), 2009: 448–463.

A farewell to critical junctures: sorting out long-run causality of income and democracy (with Martin Paldam). European Journal of Political Economy 25(3), 2009: 340–354.

The transition of corruption: from poverty to honesty (with Martin Paldam). Economics Letters 103(3), 2009: 146–148.

Two views on institutions and development: the grand transition vs. the primacy of institutions (with Martin Paldam). Kyklos 61(1), 2008: 65–100.

Untangling the quality of governance from the level of income: are Sub-saharan African countries governed differently? (with Susanne Hartmann). European Journal of Development Research 19(4), 2007: 503–528.

Factor price equality and biased technical change in a two-cone trade model (with Daniel Becker). Review of Development Economics 11(4), 2007: 685–698.

The Solow model in the empirics of growth and trade. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 23(1), 2007: 21–44.

The primacy of institutions reconsidered: direct income effects of malaria prevalence (with Kai Carstensen). World Bank Economic Review 20(3), 2006: 309–339.

Solow vs. Solow: notes on identification and interpretation in the empirics of development. Review of World Economics 141(3), 2005: 541–556.

Growth effects of EU membership: the case of East Germany. Empirica 30(3), 2003: 237–270.

Second thoughts on development accounting (with Desmond Rudman and Ludger Wößmann). Applied Economics. 34(11), 2002: 1359–1369.

The implausible growth effect of partial capital mobility: some neoclassical arithmetic. Economic Modelling 19(1), 2002: 25–40.

Education and economic development: an empirical perspective. Journal of Economic Development 26(1), 2001: 37–60.

The fading productivity of schooling in East Asia (with Ludger Wößmann). Journal of Asian Economics 12(3), 2001: 401–417.

The decline of schooling productivity in OECD countries (with Ludger Wößmann and Jens Gmelin). Economic Journal 111(471), 2001: C135–C147.

Capital mobility and growth (with Markus Diehl). Economics Letters 62(1), 1999: 131–133.

Regional convergence of output per worker in China: a neoclassical interpretation. Asian Economic Journal 11(4), 1997: 423–442.

Globalization and labour markets in the triad: different adjustment patterns (with Peter Nunnenkamp). Transnational Corporations 6(3), 1997: 57–85.

Openness and economic growth in developing countries. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 133(3), 1997: 479–496.

Demand bias and structural change: reply. Kyklos 49(2), 1996: 215–217.

The role of human capital in economic growth: new results and alternative interpretations. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 131(2), 1995: 383–402.

Accounting for the stock of human capital: selected evidence and potential implications. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 130(2), 1994: 350–374.

Demand bias as an explanation for structural change. Kyklos 47(2), 1994: 249–267.

Empirical evidence for alternative growth models: time series results. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv. 129(1), 1993: 103–119.

Unit root tests of the current account balance: implications for international capital mobility (with Stefan Sinn). Applied Economics 24(6), 1992: 617–625.

More evidence on the puzzle of interindustry wage differentials: the case of West Germany (with Joachim Fels). Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 126(3), 1990: 544–560.

2. Monographs

Bildungspolitik im Zeitalter der Globalisierung. Die Zukunft der Sozialen Marktwirtschaft, Band 7. Stuttgart: Lucius & Lucius, 2006.

Aufsätze zur empirischen Wachstumsforschung. Habilitation thesis, Helmut-Schmidt-University (Bundeswehr University), mimeo, Hamburg 1999.

Globalisation of Production and Markets (with Peter Nunnenkamp and Jamuna P. Agarwal). Kieler Studien, 262, Tübingen 1994.

Regional Integration in Europe and Its Impact on Developing Countries (with Ulrich Hiemenz, Rolf Langhammer, Peter Nunnenkamp). Kieler Studien, 260, Tübingen 1994.

Die Dienstleistungsnachfrage als Determinante des wirtschaftlichen Strukturwandels. Kieler Studien, 252, Tübingen 1993 (Dissertation thesis).

Die Entwicklung nationaler Auslandsvermögenspositionen - Konsequenzen für die Wirtschaftspolitik (with Joachim Scheide and Stefan Sinn). Kieler Studien, 230, Tübingen 1990.

Investitionen, Produktivität und Beschäftigung - Eine empirische Analyse für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland (with Klaus-Dieter Schmidt). Kieler Studien, 218, Tübingen 1988.

Strukturwandel und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung - Die deutsche Wirtschaft im Anpassungsstau (with Juergen B. Donges, Klaus-Dieter Schmidt et al.). Kieler Studien, 216, Tübingen 1988.

3. Articles in Other Journals

Demokratie, Verteilung und Wachstum aus ökonomischer Sicht. Replik.
Wissenschaft & Umwelt Interdisziplinär 13, 2009: 157-159.

Arbeitssparender technischer Fortschritt. Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium, Heft 4, 2009: 188-192.

Armut und Reichtum in der Weltwirtschaft – Ursachen und Konsequenzen. Wirtschaftspolitische Blätter 55(3), 2008: 533-545.

Paul M. Romer: Smith hatte recht – die endogene Wachstumstheorie. Entwicklungspolitik Information Nord Süd, Heft 17-18, 2007, pp. 48-50.

Family Background, Schooling Resources, and Institutional Features: What Determines Student Performance in East Asian Countries? (with Ludger Wößmann). East Asian Economic Perspectives, Vol. 15, August 2004, pp. 17-31.

Human Capital Formation: What Pre-Accession Countries Can Learn from the EU Experience. IPTS Report, Vol.65, June 2002, pp. 4-11.

Robert M. Solow: Wirtschaftswachstum und Entwicklung. Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit, Vol. 43, 2002, pp. 152-155.

Better Schools for Europe (with Ludger Wößmann). EIB Prize 2001. EIB Papers, Vol. 6, 2001, No. 2, pp. 8-22.

Negative Folgen der Globalisierung nicht tabuisieren. Orientierungen, Vol. 85, 2000, No. 3, pp. 19-21.

Globalization: Economic Challenges and the Political Response. Intereconomics, Vol. 35, 2000, pp. 114-118.

Forschungsreport: Bildung und Wirtschaftswachstum. Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium, Vol 28, 1999, pp. 679-681.

Die Produktivität der Bildung. Die Weltwirtschaft, 1999, No. 3, pp. 345-367.

The Economic Growth of Nations in the Twentieth Century. Economics, Vol. 60, 1999, pp. 7-30.

Humankapital im Entwicklungsprozeß: Wachstumstheoretische Grundlagen und empirische Relevanz. Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium, Vol. 27, 1998, pp. 616-626.

Das Wirtschaftswachstum der Nationen im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert. Die Weltwirtschaft, H. 1, 1998, pp. 85-107.

Europa und Asien im Zeitalter der Globalisierung: Chancen und Risiken für die internationale Arbeitsteilung (also in Korean). Kyongsang-nonch'ong, Vol. 16, 1997, pp. 67-96.

Catching Up Processes or Decoupling Trends? Developing Countries in the Age of Globalization (with Peter Nunnenkamp). Economics, Vol. 55/56, 1997, pp. 60-84.

Globalization as a Challenge for Developing Countries: A Bird's-Eye View on Perspectives for Indonesia. Indonesian Quarterly, Vol. 25, 1997, No. 1, pp. 72-87.

Human Capital and Economic Development: A Macroeconomic Assessment. Intereconomics,  Vol. 32, 1997, pp. 23-35.

European Economic Integration - Bad News for Developing Countries? Sri Lankan Journal of Management, Vol. 1, 1996, pp. 48-66.

Humankapital als Motor der Entwicklung. Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit, Vol. 36, 1995, pp. 261-266. Reprinted in: Reinold E. Thiel (Ed), Neue Ansätze zur Entwicklungstheorie, Deutsche Stiftung für Internationale Entwicklung, Bonn 1999, pp. 173-185. Reprinted in Spanish in: Reinold E. Thiel (Ed.), Teoría del desarollo: Nuevos enfoques y problemas, Caracas 2001, pp. 83-92.

The European Union in the Era of Globalisation. Competitive Challenges, Structural Unemployment, and Policy Responses (with Peter Nunnenkamp). Konjunkturpolitik, Vol. 40, 1994, pp. 202-225.

Explaining Comparative Economic Growth. Asian Economies, Vol. 23, 1994, pp. 5-25.

Determinanten des Wirtschaftswachstums - Hypothesen und empirische Evidenz. Die Weltwirtschaft, 1993, No. 4, pp. 466-498.

Interindustrielle Lohnunterschiede und Effizienzlohntheorie: Befunde, Hypothesen und wirtschaftspolitische Relevanz (with Joachim Fels). Die Weltwirtschaft, 1990, No. 2, pp. 43-57.

Gibt es genügend Lohndifferenzierung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland? Die Weltwirtschaft, 1986, No. 1, pp. 74-88.

4. Contributions to Books

Bildungsressourcen, Bildungsinstitutionen und Bildungsqualität: Makroökonomische Relevanz und mikroökonomische Evidenz (with Ludger Wößmann). In: Uschi Backes-Gellner, Petra Moog (Eds.), Ökonomie der Evaluation von Schulen und Hochschulen. Schriften des Vereins für Socialpolitik, Berlin 2004 (Duncker und Humblot), pp. 15-52.

Education Is Good for the Poor: A Note on Dollar and Kraay (with J. Navarro de Pablo and Natascha Weisert). In: Tony Shorrocks, Rolph Van der Hoeven (Eds.), Growth, Inequality and Poverty: Prospects for Pro-poor Economic Development. UNU/WIDER Studies in Development Economics, Oxford 2004 (Oxford University Press), pp. 92-106.

Nach dem PISA-Schock: Höhere Bildungsausgaben oder umfassende Bildungsreform? In: Toni Hansel (Ed.), PISA – und die Folgen? Herbolzheim 2003 (Centaurus): 216-236.

Soziale Ertragsraten und Verteilungseffekte des Humankapitals: Internationale Evidenz. In: Heinz Ahrens (Ed.), Neuere Ansätze der theoretischen und empirischen Entwicklungsforschung. Schriften des Vereins für Socialpolitik, Band 297, Berlin 2003 (Duncker und Humblot): 229-248.

Die Bedeutung des Humankapitals für die Unternehmensentwicklung. In: Robert Kappel, Utz Dornberger, Michaela Meier, Ute Rietdorf (Eds.), Klein- und Mittelunternehmen in Entwicklungsländern - Die Herausforderungen der Globalisierung. Schriften des Deutschen Übersee-Instituts, 58, Hamburg 2003: 43-70.

Makroökonomisches Produktivitätswachstum in der Neuen Ökonomie: Empirischer Anspruch und methodische Unzulänglichkeiten. In: Henning Klodt et al., Die neue Ökonomie. Kieler Studien, 321, Berlin 2003: 17-42.

Der Produktivitätsverfall der schulischen Ausbildung: Internationale Evidenz (with Ludger Wößmann). In: Bildungsreform aus ökonomischer Sicht. Beihefte der Konjunkturpolitik, 51, Berlin 2001: 287-305.

Die sinkende Produktivität der Schulen in OECD-Ländern (with Ludger Wößmann). In: Manfed Weiß, Horst Weishaupt (Eds.), Bildungsökonomie und Neue Steuerung. Beiträge zur Bildungsplanung und Bildungsökonomie, 9. Frankfurt 2000: pp. 31-52.

Bildung als Standortfaktor: Internationale Evidenz. In: Konrad Morath (Ed.), Rohstoff Bildung. Beiträge zu einer Tagung des Frankfurter Instituts. Frankfurt 2000, pp. 27-39.

Education and Economic Development: An Empirical Perspective. In: Hans-Rimbert Hemmer, Wolfgang Kroh (Eds.), Weiterentwicklungen in der Wachstumstheorie. Tagungsband des Vereins für Entwicklungspolitische Forschungsförderung. Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW), Frankfurt 2000, pp. 115-136.

Vom Nutzen des monetär-keynesianischen Ansatzes für Entwicklungstheorie und -politik. Korreferat zum Beitrag von Manfred Nitsch. In: Renate Schubert (Ed.), Neue Wachstums- und Aussenhandelstheorie - Implikationen für die Entwicklungstheorie und -politik. Schriften des Vereins für Socialpolitik, 269. Berlin 1999 (Duncker und Humblot), pp. 215-223.

Globalization and the Developing Countries: Facts and Perspectives (with Peter Nunnenkamp). In: Christoph Bosshardt (Ed.), Problembereiche interdisziplinärer Forschung. Social Strategies Vol. 29. Bern 1999, pp. 123-140.

The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Development: Problems and Perspectives. In: Joseph Tan (Ed.), Human Capital Formation as an Engine of Growth: The East Asian Experience. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore 1999, pp. 7-33.

Some Consequences of Globalization for Developing Countries (with Peter Nunnenkamp). In: John Dunning (Ed.), Globalization, Trade and Foreign Direct Investment. Amsterdam 1998, pp. 153-174.

Wirtschaftliche Konvergenz offener Volkswirtschaften: China und andere Entwicklungsländer. In: Bernhard Fischer, Thomas Straubhaar (Eds.), Ökonomische Konvergenz in Theorie und Praxis. Baden-Baden 1998, pp. 49-65.

Implicaciones de la globalización sobre el mercado laboral. Cómo ha manejado la terna los desafíos de competitividad? (with Peter Nunnenkamp) In: Mauricio Cárdenas S. (Ed.), Empleo y distribución del ingreso en América Latina. Santafé de Bogotá 1997, pp.103-131.

Aufholprozesse oder Abkopplungstendenzen? Entwicklungsländer im Zeitalter der Globalisierung (with Peter Nunnenkamp). In: Hans-Bernd Schäfer (Ed.), Die Entwicklungsländer im Zeitalter der Globalisierung. Schriften des Vereins für Socialpolitik, 245. Berlin 1996, pp. 87-112.

European Economic Integration - Bad News for Developing Countries? In: Ulrich Everding, Victor Gunawardana (Eds.), Perspectives of European Integration and South Asian Cooperation. Colombo 1995, pp. 85-108.

EC Economic Integration and Its Impact on Foreign Direct Investment and Developing Countries (also in Japanese) (with Jamuna P. Agarwal, Ulrich Hiemenz, Rolf Langhammer, Peter Nunnenkamp). Koichi Ohno, Yumiko Okamoto (Eds.), Regional Integration and Foreign Direct Investment: Implications for Developing Countries. Institute of Developing Economies, Tokio 1994, pp. 283-384.

Comment on: T. Paul Schultz, The Role of Education and Human Capital in Economic Development: An Empirical Assessment. In: Horst Siebert (Ed.), Economic Growth in the World Economy. Symposium 1992, Tübingen 1993, pp. 165-168.

5. Working Papers and Discussion Papers

Socioeconomic transitions as common dynamic processes (with Martin Paldam). Economics Working Papers, 2016-06, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University. April 2016.

Jumps into democracy: The transition in the Polity index (with Martin Paldam). Economics Working Papers, 2016-05, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University. April 2016.

Religiosity as a Determinant of Happiness (with Matthias Opfinger). GIGA Working Paper, 163, April 2011.

Look Before You Leap: The Economics of Free Trade and Income Redistribution (with Albert de Vaal). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1583, January 2010.

The Religious Transition. A Long-run Perspective (with Martin Paldam). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1576, December 2009.

The Agricultural and the Democratic Transitions. Causality and the Roundup model (with Martin Paldam). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1521, May 2009.

Technological Change, Trade, and Endogenous Factor Endowments (with Albert de Vaal). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1471, December 2008.

The Democratic Transition. A Study of the Causality between Income and the Gastil Democracy Index (with Martin Paldam). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1459, October 2008.

Income and Democracy. A Comment on Acemoglu, Johnson, Robinson, and Yared (2008) (with Martin Paldam). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1458, October 2008.

The Transition of Corruption: From Poverty to Honesty (with Martin Paldam). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1411, March 2008.

A Farewell to Critical Junctures: Sorting Out Long-run Causality of Income and Democracy (with Martin Paldam). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1410, March 2008.

The Augmented Solow Model with Mincerian Schooling and Externalities (with Kai Carstensen and Susanne Hartmann). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1408, March 2008.

Arbeitssparender technischer Fortschritt und Löhne. Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1382, September 2007.

Two Views on Institutions and Development: The Grand Transition vs. the Primacy of Institutions (with Martin Paldam). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1315, February 2007.

The Primacy of Institutions Reconsidered: The Effects of Malaria Prevalence in the Empirics of Development (with Kai Carstensen). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1210, May 2004; revised version August 2005.

Untangling the Quality of Governance from the Level of Income: Are Sub-Saharan African Countries Governed Well? (with Susanne Hartmann). Kiel Institute Working Paper, 1241, April 2005.

Family Background, Schooling Resources, and Institutional Features: What Determines Student Performance in East Asian Countries? (with Ludger Wößmann). ICSEAD Working Paper Series, Vol. 2003-18, August.

Education Is Good for the Poor: A Note on Dollar and Kraay (with J. Navarro de Pablo and Natascha Weisert). WIDER Discussion Paper, 2001/137, November 2001.

Growth Effects of EU Membership: The Case of East Germany. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Interim Report, IR-01-035, September 2001.

Interpreting Productivity Growth in the New Economy: Some Agnostic Notes. Kiel Institute Working Papers, 1020, January 2001.

Climatic Conditions, Cultural Diversity, and Labor Productivity (with Ximena Matus-Velasco). Kiel Institute Working Papers, 1015, December 2000.

Investment in Education: Some Lessons from the International Evidence for the Baltic States. Kiel Institute Discussion Papers, 333, March 1999.

Labor Markets in the Global Economy: How to Prevent Rising Wage Gaps and Unemployment (with Peter Nunnenkamp). Kiel Institute Discussion Papers, 305, September 1997.

Falling Behind or Catching Up? Developing Countries in the Era of Globalization (with Peter Nunnenkamp). Kiel Institute Discussion Papers, 263, January 1996.

Fairneß im Standortwettbewerb? Auf dem Weg zur internationalen Ordungspolitik (with Henning Klodt, Rolf J. Langhammer, Rüdiger Soltwedel). Kiel Institute Discussion Papers, 254, June 1994.

Ein einfaches Modell des Strukturwandels. Kiel Institute Working Papers, 470, March 1991. Ausgaben- und Preiselastizitäten der Dienstleistungsnachfrage - Zeitreihen- und Querschnittsergebnisse für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Kiel Institute Working Papers, 430, September 1990.

Währungsreform und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung: Westdeutschland 1948. Working Papers, 186, April 1987.

Im Strukturwandel vorangekommen? (with Klaus-Dieter Schmidt, Henning Klodt). Kiel Institute Discussion Papers, 122, August 1986.

Das amerikanische Beschäftigungswunder: Was sich daraus lernen läßt (with Klaus-Dieter Schmidt). Kiel Institute Discussion Papers, 109, July 1985.

6. Other Articles

Malaria – das unterschätzte Entwicklungshemmnis. GIGA Focus Global, No. 3, April 2013.

Weniger ist selten mehr. Financial Times Deutschland. 14.12.2009, p. 24.

Input-Output Relationen im Bildungssystem. In: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung. Investitionsgut Bildung, Workshop "Investition in Humankapital". 7. Juni 2004, Bonn: 11-13.

More Money Does Not Mean Better Quality. European Commission, Directorate Education and Culture, Le Magazine, Vol. 18, 2002, p. 11.

Vom unterschiedlichen Wachstum der Nationen. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 19. Juni 1999, p. 15.

Wer den Wandel verpaßt, den bestraft der Wettbewerb (with Peter Nunnenkamp). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 4. April 1998, p. 15.

7. Book Reviews

Hagemann, Harald (Hrsg.), Studien zur Entwicklung der ökonomischen Theorie XXVI. Wissen/The Knowledge Economy. Schriften des Vereins für Socialpolitik. NF Band 115/XXVI. Berlin: Dunker & Humblot 2011. In: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, 232(5), 2012: 592-594.

Marjit, Sugata, Rajat Acharyya, International Trade, Wage Inequality and the Developing Economy. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg 2003. In: Review of World Economics, Vol. 140, 2004, pp. 342-344.

Ros, Jaime, Development Theory and the Economics of Growth. The University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor 2000. In: Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit, Vol. 45, 2004, p. 131.

Easterly, William, The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economist’s Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics. The MIT Press: Cambridge MA 2001. In: Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Vol. 138, 2002, pp. 366-370.

Wagner, Helmut, Wachstum und Entwicklung: Theorie der Entwicklungspolitik. Oldenbourg: München 1997. In: Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit, Vol. 41, 2000, p. 26.

Bourguignon, François, Christian Morrison, Adjustment and Equity in Developing Countries. A New Approach. OECD Development Centre Studies, Paris 1992; and Morrison, Christian, Adjustment and Equity. OECD Development Centre, Policy Brief No. 1, Paris 1992. In: Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Vol 131, 1995, pp. 205-209.

Felderer, Bernhard (Ed.), Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft. Berlin 1990. In: Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Vol. 129, 1993, pp. 432-435.

Lee, Ronald D., Brian Arthur, Allen C. Kelley, Gerry Rodgers, T.N. Srinivasan (Eds.), Population, Food, and Rural Development. International Studies in Demography. Oxford 1988. In: Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Vol. 128, 1992, pp. 768-771.

Elfring, Tom, Service Sector Employment in Advanced Economies. Aldershot 1988. In: Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Vol. 128, 1992, pp. 373-376.